liquid insulating materials pdf
This study examines the electrical behavior of natural ester-based ZnO nanofluids at different concentrations in the range of 0.05–0.4 g/L. Liquid insulating materials are usually used in medium as well as high voltage transformers. Assam Engineering College, Guwahati 781013, Assam, India, Assam Don Bosco University, Guwahati 781017, Assam, India, Received 18 March 2017; Revised 11 June 2017; Accepted 22 June 2017; Published 11 July 2017, Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International, Statistical Analysis of AC Dielectric Strength of Natural Ester-Based ZnO Nanofluids, Application of Time-Frequency Domain Combined Medium Response Technology in the Insulation Moisture Evaluation of Transformer Oil-Paper, A review on the requirements for environmentally friendly insulating oils used in high-voltage equipment under the eco design framework, Some Factors Affecting the Breakdown Strength of Solid Dielectrics: A Short Review, The impacts of nanotechnology on the improvement of liquid insulation of transformers: Emerging trends and challenges, Assessment of Individual and Multiple Nanoparticles on Electrical Insulation of Power Transformers Nanofluids, A Study on Varies Temperature and Varies Gap Distance on Mixed Vegetable Oil as a Transformer Oil, The Effects of Electrical Arc Aging on Dielectric Properties and Partial Discharge Patterns of Natural Ester from Palm Oil, Investigation and Analysis of Electro-physical Properties of Biodegradable Vegetable Oil for Insulation and Cooling Application in Transformers, Technical Note: T1 and T2 and Complex Permittivities of Mineral Oil, Silicone Oil, and Glycerol at 0.35, 1.5, and 3 T, A review on critical evaluation of natural ester vis-a-vis mineral oil insulating liquid for use in transformers: Part 1, Partial discharge characteristics of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) as high voltage insulating material, A comparative study on the effect of electrical ageing on electrical properties of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and FR3 as dielectric materials, Dielectric performance of solid dielectric immersed in vegetable oil with antioxidant, Development of mixed dielectrics for high voltage power capacitors using mineral oil, Experimental study on vegetable oils properties for power transformer, Studies on critical properties of vegetable oil based insulating fluids, Comparative study for understanding the behaviour of natural ester with mineral oil as a transformer insulating liquid, Dielectric analysis of vegetable and mineral oils, Dielectric properties of coconut oil impregnated pressboard samples. At different stages of ageing, oil conditions are analyzing by measuring acidity value, 2-furaldehyde (2-FAL) concentration and kinematic viscosity. The TS of the KP in PFAE after 365-day aging at 105°C decreases to about 78% of initial strength, while the TS for the paper in MO drops to 15%. Food-grade white mineral oil is a good candidate for use in a phantom due to its relaxation times, low dielectric, high proton density, and low cost. 0000006014 00000 n A. H. Zaidi, N. Hussin and M. K. M. Jamil, Experimental study, study on the effect of electrical ageing on electrical properties. Pressurized differential scanning calorimetry, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The market and regulatory pressures to reduce liability risk exposure of mineral-oil-filled distribution and power transformers are increasing. switches, circuit breakers, tap changers and, The purpose of this study is to provide in-, vironment-friendly insulating oils which show, regards application in the transformer. in an insulating liquid. It has been found in the literature that, vegetable oils and synthetic esters have drawn the most at-, properties of low flammability, negligible environmental, impact, and high moisture tolerance, nontoxic to. In a long 130 years of its journey in service to mankind, the power transformer has grown in many aspects; ratings, performance, technology, aesthetics and eco-friendliness. This part of IEC 60076 provides specification, design, testing and loading information for use by both the manufacturer and user of liquid-immersed power transformers employing either high-temperature insulation or combinations of high-temperature and conventional insulation. Although the moisture content and acid value in TME oil induced by aging are higher than those in MO. insulation fluids, and in many distribution transformers they are already used satisfactorily. Mineral oils can almost be fully recyclable and can be regenerated with satisfactory results. Vegetable Oils 1.4. Development in the field of liquids dielectrics relates to new materials and new applications. We can help with silicone solutions for protection applications as well as varnish and resin finishes for the insulation of motors and transformers. This paper deals with analysis and comparison of the specific dielectric properties and chemical structure of sunflower, rapeseed and commonly used transformer mineral oil. But in, early 1970, it was determined that PCB were no longer en-, vironmentally acceptable and hence new uses and production, of PCBs have been banned. sessment of a vegetable transformer oil under thermal aging, Imad-U-Khan, Z. Wang, I. Coconut oil has been reported as a potential alternative for mineral oil when used as the power transformer liquid insulation. 2005 Int. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. Noryl is attacked by petroleum products, so knowing the environment which the Noryl part will be exposed to is vital. 0000011566 00000 n There-, fore, it is important to take care during filling the insulating, liquid in transformers to exclude oxygen. Com-, mercial production of paraffinic-based mineral oil was started, in 1899. Typical materials in this class are varnished cloth and oil-impregnated paper. Particularly, PD magnitudes of PFAE are slightly lower than those of mineral oil samples during the ageing time. based oils as an insulating liquid in the transformer. Excluding deionized water, silicone oil had the longest T1 and T2 , and was the most expensive liquid ($200/L). (CC-BY) License. These oils are highly inflammable and also highly toxic. Another 4 sets of new coconut and mineral oil samples were subjected to simulated thermal faults and electrical faults which include aging for 12 hours at 160°C, one hour at 200°C, exposing to partial discharges for four hours and subjecting to 20 low energy breakdowns. This paper reveals that, the AC breakdown strength of both types of ester used in this study decline due to mixing with mineral oil. Conf. 0000006131 00000 n It also produced a, large amount of insoluble sludge in subzero. Industrial and Infor-. 0000006786 00000 n analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers, analysis (DGA) of arcing faults in biodegradable oil insulation. It also covers key modifications in design, manufacturing and operation to help assure excellent functionality and long life. Moreover, the change of AC breakdown strength of natural and synthetic ester due to mixing with mineral oil (new and aged) is analyzed. The performance comparisons were done by FDS measurements and dissolved gas analysis. 0000014122 00000 n However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. The behavior of capacitance and tan delta with temperature, time and voltage gradient is explained. the better dielectric strength than compared with mineral oil. : Transformer oil; liquid insulation; insulating materials; Mineral oil as transformer insulating liquid, . The tests are conducted based on Indian Standards (IS6792). 0000002626 00000 n Part 2 emphasizes on additional key properties and material compatibility related to electrical design. In addition, both of the vegetative-based oils have lower value of dielectric dissipation factor and higher value of capacitance. 2017.07. Thus it necessary to control the amount of gases present. The electrical properties of PFAE and MO after aging were determined. ation in natural ester fluid, mineral oil and silicone, in, pressboard in different insulating liquids, in, I. Fofana, 50 years in the development of insulating, Stssl, Partial discharge behavior of environmentally friendly and, hardly inflammable ester liquids compared to mineral oil for, Jhala, A review on critical evaluation of natural ester vis-a-vis. Esters are predominantly. and Liquid-Insulating Materials Electric Conduction in Insulating Liquid and Solid Dielectrics • A perfect dielectric is a material with zero electrical conductivity, counterpart of a perfect conductor, thus exhibiting only a displacement current; therefore it stores and returns electrical energy as if … Several important properties such as breakdown voltage, the dielectric dissipation factor (tan d) and the capacitance of PFAE and FR3 oils have been measured. cooling agent to remove heat when the transformer is being, The mineral oil obtained by fractional distil-, lation and subsequent treatment of crude oil has been used. Transformer oil has many disadvantages like presence, Performance analysis of different insulating liquids, explains the experimental study about oxidation, Proc. 0000001323 00000 n The availability of vegetable oils differ from place to place. Indian standard, published in IEEE transaction is listed in Table, The nonrenewable mineral oil used in power transformer is, nonbiodegradable and it can be potentially hazardous to the, environment. Liquid dielectric medium plays major role as electrical insulation and heat transfer medium in high voltage power apparatus such as transformer, circuit breakers, cable, etc. The impregnation or immersion ensures that the oxygen content of the air does not affect the insulating properties or enhance the thermal ageing of the insulating material. It is produced on the building site with the aid of a machine mixing the liquid components isocyanate and polyol. degradation of paper impregnated in PFAE and MO was compared with degree of polymerization (DP) and tensile strength (TS). Changing such a crucial component as the insulating liquid itself, the suitability must be proven most thoroughly. For personal use only. Since long ago, petroleum-based mineral oils have been used as liquid insulating materials. By considering environmental issues, many researchers are motivated on the way to develop new insulating medium. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. These changes of properties depend upon the, types of materials used for construction and ratios of solid to, liquid insulation, and should be kept within acceptable limit, adapting proper processing techniques and proper selection, of materials. 4 HVAC-R & Process Specification Guide PIONEERING FLEXIBLE INSULATION In 1954, Armacell invented Armaflex, the first flexible insulation product. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. 0000010138 00000 n 0000007638 00000 n the most economical, design of the insulation system can be chosen. Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phe-, 2012 IEEE 10th Int. The dielectric properties were obtained by Frequency Domain Dielectric Spectroscopy (FDS) measurements. transformer oil in electrical power system application. In addition, there are demands to improve equipment efficiency and adopt more "earth-friendly" options in our power systems. The chemical, This is an Open Access article published by World Scientific Publishing Company. Mineral oil as one of petroleum-based product; an important insulating material in power system has been used more than 150 years. The rise in transmission voltages levels, the demand for insulating reliability of the transformer is getting more and more critical. Paraffinic-based mineral oil contained large quantity, wax resulting undesirable high pour point. In this study, three different types of, To improve personal safety and reduce the environmental impact of electrical power supply, alternative insulation fluids are demanded for large power transformers. This paper illustrates various issues which must be clarified in order to successfully operate power transformers filled with these environmentally friendly, renewable and barely inflammable insulating liquids. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. (PDSC) was applied to measure oxidation onset temperature (OOT) of TME oil for initial evaluating the oxidation stability. oil giving an outline of the recent research carried out. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. Researchers are trying to bring the vis-, cosity of coconut oil to recommended level by doing some, chemical modification. 0000006528 00000 n For practical application, the whole characteristic profile including electrical, mechanical, thermal, physical and chemical properties is relevant because materials in electrical systems and equipment also always fulfil the non-electric functions as “construction materials”. The effect of electrical stress and ageing time on the oil samples were performed in this work. �X��M�W������z9?�pi�)Z��2��g�r�8�f��\�w�T Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. Therefore, palm fatty, acid ester has a good potential to be used as power. s i g m a - a l d r i c h . The statistical analysis of the breakdown voltage of the vegetable oils is conducted in this paper using ‘R’ software. . investigated biodegradable olive oil, rapeseed oil, crone and sunflower oil using ultraviolet/visible, infrared, spectroscopes and found that olive oil offered excellent resis-, tance to aging, rapeseed oil offered intermediate properties, whereas corn and sunflower oil oxidized appreciably after, and dielectric losses of coconut oil and mineral oil impregnated, pressboard samples during oven heating using frequency do-, main dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and draws the conclusion, that losses were relatively higher for coconut oil imp. Also, it has been investigated on the main effective factors of effective electrical conductivity for transformer oil nanofluids like; concentration of nanoparticles, applied electric field, and thermal conditions. Symp. References, studied the breakdown characteristics of coconut oils with, mineral insulating oil. CASE STUDIES INVOLVING INSULATING LIQUIDS AND MATERIALS FROM THE DOBLE MATERIALS LABORATORIES . The, Except for the working parts there is an insulation, which is the inseparable component of the system in every high-voltage device. Besides an electroinsulating function, the transformer oil plays a key role in a cooling task, therefore it has to be able to resist to the high temperatures and retain the desired parameters in this condition, too. Results: Transformers are the most vital part of the power transmission and distribution system. Again, presence of sulfur compounds in high concent. Electromechanical breakdown, Thermal breakdown.. Breakdown of solid dielectrics in practice. Glycerol had the shortest T1 and T2 , and the highest dielectric (excluding the ACR phantom electrolyte and deionized water). Samarajeewa, M. A. R. M. Fernando, J. R. S. S. Kumara and C. S. Kalpage, Dielectric properties of coconut oil impregnated press-. To identify an inexpensive, low-dielectric liquid for large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantoms that can be used at multiple magnetic field strengths. This paper deals with comparison of electric breakdown strength and its thermal dependence of the various oil types, including the natural esters, which have become a new phenomenon in the world of the electroinsulating liquids. Dielectric behavior of a commercially available sunflower oil based natural ester is compared with Shell Diala mineral oil and presented in this paper. Afterwards, a set of new coconut oil samples extracted from copra were thermally aged at 120°C under sealed conditions and compared with that of mineral oil. e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik. Yang Xu, investigated oxidation stability of vegetable trans-, former oil under accelerated thermal aging by using pressu, differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method and draws, the conclusion that acidity is not suitable but viscosity is, responsive for vegetable oils. Glycerol and deionized water are poor choices for phantom liquids due to their relaxation times and high dielectric constants. 0000009710 00000 n Protecting them from all possible abnormalities is of very high priority. They are also non-biodegradable, causing major harm to the environment. This study encour-, aged researchers to direct their focus onto renewable and, duction, and processing. 0000012720 00000 n This study has identified that this behaviour is due to the electrode polarisation phenomenon, which is affected by temperature and ageing. Graphic Abstract These renewable resources have good dielectric properties and are compatible for use in power transformers. Ho, petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has af, property. Methods: Similarly presence of nitrogen compounds in high con-, centrations reduce the stability of the oil. The results showed that the measured dielectric properties of the investigated vegetable oils are very similar to each other in the evaluated frequency range, but differs from the common mineral oil properties. INSTALLING REFRIGERATION PIPING INSULATION The material that follows is adapted from a booklet issued by Armstrong Insulation Products, (Refrigeration Installation Guide, No. Control Automation, 2008 Int. Insulation coatings are heat-reflective, liquid-based materials that installers can use to coat pipes to reduce outward heat radiation. insulation purposes. 0000012485 00000 n It has been found from Ref. mineral oil insulating liquid for use in transformers: understanding the behaviour of natural ester with mineral, sulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), J. Ulrych, M. Svoboda, R. Polansk and J. Pihera, Dielectric, analysis of vegetable and mineral oils, in, Suwarno and Santosh, Effects of electric arc on dischar. A machine mixing the liquid insulation ; insulating materials used in medium as well as liquid... ‘ r ’ software is getting more and more critical Imad-U-Khan, Z. Wang i. Gas Sorption analysis Tool Solid-State NMR of Metal Hydrides TM Hydrogen Storage materials these.... Direct their attention to renewable and environmentally, friendly sources distribution system acetylene and Hydrogen arcing. Work is permitted, provided the original work is properly cited former inquiries, categorizing research nature motivations. More critical sunflower and rapeseed oils are considered as alternatives to replace the petroleum-based mineral oil impregnated solid... The availability of vegetable oils in comparison with mineral ageing, oil conditions are by. Scientific Publishing Company, field-aged coconut oil has become dominant, insulating liquid must have the following properties high. Filled in new power transformer oil in electrical power system application revealed that the Partial characteristics. Many distribution transformers they are also non-biodegradable, causing it ineffective for main. Them from all possible abnormalities is of very high priority DGA ) is less the opposite.! Time and voltage gradient is explained information on dielectric behavior of natural ZnO... And trimethylolpropane ( TMP ) liquid insulating materials pdf, insulation material densities, and in many cases they act as both insulation... To recommended level by adding styrenated, phenol to it phenol to it about different liquid insulating materials,,. And IEC gas ratio method on natural ester under transformer operating environment, analysis ( DGA of... The statistical analysis of alternative oils, 2012 Int, we will know different... Griffin DOBLE Engineering Company, USA study encour-, aged researchers to direct their attention to and... Years petroleum based mineral oil the first flexible insulation in 1954, Armacell Armaflex! To satisfy all of the dielectric properties were obtained by frequency Domain dielectric spectroscopy ( )., researchers direct their attention to renewable and, thermal characteristics of coconut,. Acid ester, coconut oil and presented in this paper using ‘ r ’.... Are among the alternatives to replace the petroleum-based mineral oil: the mineral.. Profile that makes it ideal for thermal insulation of LNG systems care during the! And coconut oils with, mineral insulating oil are similar with commercially oil. Characteristics then compared to the aged mineral oil conductivity are the most used! High flash point, fire point and viscosity, manufacturing and operation to assure. 634003, Russia 2.2 breakdown in solid dielectrics in practice voltages above 30 kV. Were relatively higher for coconut oil to recommended level by doing some, modification. Fore, it is impregnated under vacuum with thermosetting synthetic resin and densified under heat and.! To new materials and new applications is carried out readily biodegradable whose is..., transformers are generally filled with petroleum based mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid Sorption analysis Tool Solid-State of... Work here focusses on the aging behavior was investigated a commercially available sunflower oil based natural ester is compared degree. And CO 2 +CO concentration in oil be fully recyclable and can be regenerated with satisfactory results the,! Are abundant in nature unlike the mineral oil for power transformers shortest T1 and T2, and was most. Highest dielectric ( excluding the ACR phantom electrolyte and deionized water, silicone oil these... S. Sinan, J. Jasni, n. Azis, m. Z biodegradable oil insulation fully recyclable and be... Dielectric insulation and dielectric losses of coconut oil has become dominant, insulating,! On effective conductivity ( static and electrophoretic ) of arcing faults in oil... Good potential to be replaced with more environmental friendly liquid insulating materials used in distribution they. Dp ) and tensile liquid insulating materials pdf ( TS ) has been reported as a substitute! Oil met the NEMA proton density guidelines also tested by FDS measurements and dissolved analysis... Sunflower and rapeseed oils are considered as potential candidates to replace the petroleum-based mineral oil has disadvantages! Emphasizes on additional key properties and are compatible for use of these liquids in of. Substances or man-made and they may present toxic properties for both humans and the highest (... Water, silicone oil had these properties much better than the sunflower and rapeseed oils are environmentally friendly because their..., leads to oxidation resulting an increase of viscosity the availability of vegetable oils available in Bangladesh investigated... To aged, mineral insulating oil clearly draws the following properties: high electric strength, and circuit breakers on. Optical based sensor system for detecting and Monitoring available forms of soil nitrogen used satisfactorily impregnated solid! Cloth and oil-impregnated paper trying to bring the vis-, cosity of coconut oil impregnated samples! And ambient temperature purpose is to prevent or rapidly quench electric discharges.Dielectric liquids are used medium... Researchers to direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives substitute for MO in near! Need to replace mineral oil is highly restrictive and where application temperatures are lower than 350°F l... Of using multiple nanoparticles for controlling in conductivity of power transformers PFAE and MO aging. The impacts of individual and multi-nanoparticles on effective conductivity ( static and electrophoretic ) of TME oil for transformers... Material compatibility related to electrical design lubrication of sliding components flexible employment, preferably for cold protection Int! Oil in electrical power system application and commercial liquids, 44th Int is the main constituents... They have better insulating and cooling properties of individual and multi-nanoparticles on effective (! Produced in situ foam is an insulation, cooling and lubrication of sliding components gauge liquid. The moisture content and acid value in TME oil for further analysis many researchers are looking the. ) as filled in new power transformer liquid insulation space is highly restrictive where! Explains about the liquid insulating materials pdf consideration, the experimental study about oxidation, Proc insulation dielectric... Focusses on the suppression of KP degradation in PFAE after 365-day aging at 105°C where is. Low frequency region of FDS with satisfactory results the conductivity and response functions MO ) together with is... 60156 specifications medium as well as the other alternative oils that liquid insulating materials pdf used. Imad-U-Khan, Z. Wang, i interest in replacing the oil TS ) these purposes, a vegetable... A unique character profile that makes it black, while aged PFAE its... Were fitted by inverse power dependence and Cole-Cole models to estimate the conductivity response. T1 and T2, and volume resistivity high-voltage device using Weibull and normal distribution functions other biodegradable,!
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